Turkmenistan, formerly known as Turkmenia, is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Ranking among
the most corrupt countries in the world, Turkmenistan suffers from widespread corruption in every
institution and across every sector of its economy. The country’s public administration relies heavily on
patronage networks. Large projects require a presidential decree, and procurement processes are
generally carried out arbitrarily and with no oversight or regulation. The security apparatus engages in
corrupt practices with impunity (HRR 2014). Police officers often solicit bribes from drivers at traffic stops (approximately USD 100 from drivers, and USD 14 or less from travelers). Furthermore, foreign
businesses are likely to experience more burdensome customs clearance procedures than local
enterprises, which enjoy preferential treatment.