Human life has been around in Ethiopia for millions of years as skeletal fragments belonging to
Australopithecus afarensis, an apelike creature that may have been the ancestor of modern humans, that
were found in the area are thought to be about 3.4 million – 2.9 million years old. As life flourished in
Ethiopia, complex societies began to develop and one of the first kingdoms established was Dʿmt, which
lasted from c.980 BCE – c.400 BCE. The people of this kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used
plows, grew millet, and made iron tools and weapons. After the fall of Dʿmt, the Aksumite Kingdom rose
to power around 100 AD and ended sometime in 940 AD. This kingdom was followed by the Zagwe
Dynasty, and the Solomonic Dynasty after that – Ethiopia would continue to be ruled by a monarchy until 1974. Ethiopia is one of the only countries in Africa to never be colonized by a European power, but it was occupied by the Italians from 1936 – 1941.