#9. Cornelis Drebbel’s Perpetuum Mobile
Drebbel first demonstrated his machine in 1604 and amazed everyone, including England’s royal family. The machine was something of a timekeeper; it never needed winding and showed both the date and the phases of the Moon. Driven by changes in temperature or in the weather, his machine was powered by either an air thermoscope or a barometer, similar to Cox’s timepiece. No one knows what provided the motion and energy for Drebbel’s device because he talked about harnessing the “fiery spirit of the air” like an alchemist.